Wednesday, April 27, 2011


Disk Cleanup and

Defragging your Hard Disk    

Why should we defragment machines?

When you defrag your machine, you are making your machine work better. Defragging puts all of the pieces needed to run your program in a close proximity to each other on the hard drive. When you delete programs in your hard drive, you leave empty spaces where pieces of the program were inserted during installation. When you load a new program, the computer goes to the first available slot to place all the parts, so your program could be loading pieces at the beginning, middle and end. This forces your hard drive to hunt all over in accessing all the pieces and putting them together to run your application. By defragging the machine, all the program pieces will be moved and put together so your hard drive can run optimally and access programs as fast as it is capable of doing. In WinXP, the machine is smart enough to realize which program you use most often and make them more accessible in the hard drive itself so that it can be accessed even more quickly.
Defragging your machine should be part of your regular maintenance. Twice a month should keep your machine running at optimal level. If you load and delete programs often, then defrag more often.
Before defragging your machine, close all open Windows programs.
Step 1:
Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools/Disk Defragmenter
Follow this shorthand until you open ScanDisk. If you have not done a ScanDisk in awhile, I would suggest clicking on Thorough. If you have a weekly schedule for maintenance, then just the Standard will be sufficient. Select the hard drive you wish to scan and click on start. After this process is finished, go to the next step.
Step 2:
Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools/Disk Defragmenter
Follow the shorthand steps until you open Disk Defragmenter.
Select the drive to defrag and click ok and it will defrag your hard drive.
 Depending on how large your hard drive is, this process will take anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour.
It is advisable to do this at the end of the day when you don’t need to use your machine.


The Keyboard
Escape - Esc is used to back out of situations. When you find yourself in a place where you don’t want to be, try the Esc key. In PowerPoint this key will stop a running slide show. The keyboard combination Ctrl + Esc will open the Start menu.

Windows key – brings up the START menu
Print Screen - Don’t look at your printer after pressing this key. This sends a copy of whatever is on the screen to the clipboard. One common use of this action is to paste the clipboard into Paint to copy a portion of an image for use in another application. If you wish to copy only the active window, hold down the Alt key, then tap on the Print Screen key. It will copy only that window that is active, not the whole desktop.
Scroll Lock

Pause/Break - On modern keyboards, the break key is usually labeled Pause/Break. On many games this (and/or the P key) is the key to pause the game. In most Windows environments, the key combination Windows key+Pause brings up the system properties.

Keyboard shortcuts to use on a Windows/PC computer
You can avoid reaching for the mouse if you are familiar with keyboard shortcuts. If you forget one of these, use the mouse and go to the menu bar. In each pull down menu you will see keyboard shortcuts given on the right side of the window.
Commonly used keyboard combinations
To use one of these combinations Hold the Ctrl or Alt key down and strike the letter key
Open a new word document quickly.
Cut- Removes the selection from the active document and places it on the clipboard.
Opens a previously saved document.
Copies the selection to the clipboard
Closes the active window, but does not Exit Word.
Paste - Inserts the contents of the clipboard at the insertion point (cursor) or whatever is selected.
Saves the active document with its current file name, location and format.
Selects all text and graphics in the active window.
Prints the active file, also gives the opportunity to change print options
Find - Searches for specified text in the active document

Exit - Closes Microsoft Word.
Bold - Formats selected text; make text bold, or remove bold formatting
Undo the last action. This selection can be repeated several times.
Italic - Formats selected text; make text italic or remove italic
Redo - After an action has been undone, it can be reinstated in the document.
Underline - Formats selected text; make text underlined or remove underline

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Lesson Five

Let's Review Windows 7

Windows 7 is the latest public release version of
Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and reached general retail availability on October 22, 2009, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time.

Unlike its predecessor, which introduced a large number of new features,
Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being fully compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista is already compatible.

Presentations given by Microsoft in 2008 focused on multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows Shell with a
new taskbar, referred to as the Superbar, a home networking system called HomeGroup, and performance improvements. Some applications that have been included with prior releases of Microsoft Windows, including Windows Calendar, Windows Mail, Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Photo Gallery, are not included in Windows 7; most are instead offered separately as part of the free Windows Live Essentials suite.

Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7. Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer 8 and Windows Media Player 12.

In July 2009, in only eight hours, pre-orders of Windows 7 at surpassed the demand Windows Vista had in its first 17 weeks. It became the highest-grossing pre-order in Amazon's history, surpassing sales of the previous record holder, the seventh Harry Potter book. After 36 hours, 64-bit versions of Windows 7 Professional and Ultimate editions sold out in Japan. Two weeks after its release, it was announced that its market share had surpassed that of Snow Leopard, released two months previously as the most recent update to Apple's Mac OS X operating system. According to Net Applications, Windows 7 reached a 4% market share in less than three weeks. In comparison, it took Windows Vista seven months to reach the same mark. As of January 29, 2010, Microsoft announced that they had sold more than 60 million Windows 7 licenses. Reviews of Windows 7 were mostly positive, praising its usability when compared to its predecessor, Windows Vista. CNET gave Windows 7 Home Premium a rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars, stating that it "is more than what Vista should have been, [and] it's where Microsoft needed to go". PC Magazine rated it a 4 out of 5 saying that Windows 7 is a "big improvement" over Windows Vista, with fewer compatibility problems, a retooled taskbar, simpler home networking and faster start-up.

Some Vista Ultimate users have expressed concerns over Windows 7 pricing and upgrade options. Windows Vista Ultimate users wanting to upgrade from Windows Vista to Windows 7 must either pay $219.99 to upgrade to Windows 7 Ultimate or perform a clean install, which requires them to reinstall all of their programs.

Microsoft is offering a family pack of Windows 7 Home Premium (in select markets) that allows installation on up to three PCs. The "Family Pack" costs US$259.99 in the United States; it was available at a cost of US$149.99 for some weeks when it was first introduced.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011



A USB flash drive consists of a NAND-type flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB (universal serial bus) interface. USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, much smaller than a floppy disk (1 to 4 inches or 2.5 to 10 cm), and most USB flash drives weigh less than an ounce (28g). Storage capacities typically range from 64 MB to 128 GB with steady improvements in size and price per gigabyte. Some allow 1 million write or erase cycles and have 10-year data retention, connected by USB 1.1 or USB 2.0.

USB flash drives offer potential advantages over other portable storage devices, particularly floppy disks or the COMPACT DISC (CD). They have a more compact shape, operate faster, hold much more data, have a more durable design, and operate more reliably due to their lack of moving parts.

Additionally, it has become increasingly common for computers to be sold without floppy disk drives. USB ports, on the other hand, appear on almost every current mainstream PC and laptop. These types of drives use the USB mass storage standard, supported natively by modern operating systems such as Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and other Unix-like systems.

Nothing actually moves in a flash drive: the term drive persists because computers read and write flash-drive data using the same system commands as for a mechanical disk drive, with the storage appearing to the computer operating system and user interface as just another drive.

A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberised case, robust enough for carrying with no additional protection—in a pocket or on a key chain, for example. The USB connector is protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive, although it is not liable to be damaged if exposed. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing plugging into a port on a personal computer.

You can transfer photos from your camera directly to your USB Flash Drive as well.


There are numerous solutions for importing digital pictures from your camera to your hard drive. I typically just connect my digital camera to my PC and copy the files over using Windows Scanner and Camera Wizard.

If you prefer to use an external application, Google's Picasa is an excellent solution. So is Photobucket, and Flickr. In addition to being a convenient way to manage your images, Picasa also includes common photo editing functions and assists in uploading images to the Web or creating slideshows on your local system.

One of my favorite features of Picasa is a timeline that shows when images were taken in relation to all your other images (which only works if your digital camera is set to the correct date). Picasa is free for Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Linux.

Downloading Your Pictures From Your Digital Camera

After you take pictures with your digital camera, you'll want to copy the pictures from your camera to your computer so you can print them, share them with others, and back them up for safe keeping. Once your pictures are on your computer, you can erase them from your camera, freeing up memory so you can take more pictures. You can also view your pictures on a larger screen and decide which ones are worth keeping.

Some digital cameras come with software that helps you copy pictures from your camera to your computer. You can use this software, but you don't have to.

Windows XP can copy pictures to your computer without requiring additional software.

Here's how to copy your pictures using Windows XP:

Once you've connected your camera to your computer using a USB cable or inserted your memory card into your memory card reader, Windows XP will detect the connection and ask you what you want to do with your pictures. If you connected your camera with a USB cable, click Microsoft Scanner and Camera Wizard, and then click OK.

If you are using a memory card reader, click Copy pictures to a folder on my computer using Microsoft Scanner and Camera Wizard, and then click OK.

When the Scanner and Camera Wizard appears, click Next. >On the Other Options page, you can choose to publish your pictures to a Web site or order prints. If you have finished working with your pictures, click Nothing, and then click Next. On the final page of the wizard, click Finish.


Windows XP opens a Windows Explorer window showing the pictures you downloaded from your camera. Your camera's memory card is now clean and ready to store new pictures. If you connected your camera to your computer using a USB cable, disconnect your camera. If you used a memory card reader, return the memory card to the camera.

Digital cameras and computers have revolutionized photography. Whether photography is your profession or a hobby, the ability to transfer your pictures from your camera to a flash drive without needing a computer is a bonus. Purchase a few accessible and inexpensive devices, or a full-featured tool, in order to quickly move your images to your flash drive and immediately continue taking pictures.

Transferring Photos from memory card to USB Flash Drive

(We don't have a memory card reader in the lab)

Select a combination memory card reader and USB flash drive. There are various memory sizes available depending on the amount of pictures you need to transfer.
Consider a multi-card reader that accepts different types of memory cards. This will help you organize your pictures or come in handy if you have two types of digital cameras.
Remove the memory card from your camera and place it in the appropriate slot in the card reader flash drive. Check that you are inserting the memory card correctly to avoid damaging the card or card reader.
Allow the card reader to transfer the pictures from the memory card onto the flash drive before removing it. Disconnecting it before it is finished transferring will cause you to lose your images or corrupt the memory card.
Replace the memory card in your digital camera and safely erase the pictures from the card. The flash drive will store your images and you have the ability to take more pictures.

You can transfer photos from your camera directly to your USB Flash Drive as well. Demonstrate. Requires 2 USB ports.

Copying files and folders to a CD

  1. Insert a blank CD into the CD recorder. Use one of the following:
    • Recordable compact disc (CD-R)
    • Rewritable compact disc (CD-RW)

With rewritable CDs, you can copy data to and erase data from the CD multiple times.

  1. Click Start, and then click My Computer.
  2. Click the files or folders that you want to copy to the CD.
    • To select more than one file, hold down the CTRL key while you click the files you want. Then, under File and Folder Tasks, click Copy this file, Copy this folder, or Copy the selected items.
    • If the files are located in My Pictures, under Picture Tasks, click Copy to CD or Copy all items to CD, and then go to Step 5.
  3. In the Copy Items dialog box, click the CD recording drive, and then click Copy.
  4. In My Computer, double-click the CD recording drive. Windows displays a temporary area where the files are located before they are copied to the CD. Verify that the files and folders that you intend to copy to the CD appear under Files Ready to be Written to the CD.
  5. Under CD Writing Tasks, click Write these files to CD. Windows displays the CD Writing Wizard. Follow the instructions in the wizard.


  • Do not try to copy more files to the CD than it will hold. Check the CD packaging to see the capacity of each CD. For files too large to fit on a CD, you can copy files to a recordable DVD (DVD-R or DVD+R) or rewritable DVD (DVD-RW or DVD+RW). However, Windows XP does not support copying to a DVD, so you have to use DVD authoring software.
  • Make sure that you have enough disk space on your hard disk to store the temporary files that are created during the CD-writing process. For a standard CD, Windows reserves up to 700 megabytes (MB) of the available free space. For a high-capacity CD, Windows reserves up to 1 gigabyte (GB) of the available free space.
  • After you copy files or folders to the CD, you can view the CD to confirm that the files have been copied.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011


The Internet Browsers

What's a BROWSER?

Definition: A browser is a software program that lets you explore the World Wide Web to find text, graphics, sound, movies, games, chats and more.

A browser helps you link to pages on websites around the world. To find a website, type in a URL (web address) in the address window or click a link or a button in the toolbar.

and Favorites

With over 100 million websites and more coming online daily, you will undoubtedly find ones you want to revisit. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses
so you can return to them quickly, without having to retype them. Whether you are using Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer or another browser, the procedure is similar.

To save a web page, go to Bookmarks or Favorites on the menu bar and click on Add to... When you open your list, the title of the page you added will appear at the bottom of the
list. To access the page, double-click on the title.


Here's another way to bookmark a web page: click on this page once with your right mouse button and select Add Bookmark or Add to Favorites from the pop-up menu.

Put Your Links in Order

After a while you'll discover that you've got dozens of bookmarks. It's now time to organize them into folders.

If you use Internet Explorer 7.0 OR 8.0, click on Favorites on the menu bar to open the Favorites window. Now select Organize Favorites. Click the New Folder button to create a folder, then name it. We suggest organizing your bookmarks in folders by subjects, such as Sports, Travel, News, Games, etc. Now click on each Favorite once, hold down your left mouse button and drag the Favorite into the appropriate subject folder.

With Firefox 2.0, click on Bookmarks on the menu bar to open the Bookmarks window. Now select Organize Bookmarks. Click the New Folder button to create a folder, name it, click on each Bookmark once, hold down your left mouse button and drag it into the subject folders.

Create folders to organize your Firefox bookmarks


URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is the Web Address of a web page, or some other kind of document, that is available on the Internet. It is the instruction to your browser regarding the exact location on the Internet of the page you want to visit.

For example: OR http://

The way that information is transferred by way of the browser. That is known as the protocol. In this case the browser is to use Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. (http://) The language of web pages is known as HTML, Hypertext Markup Language.

The domain name is the location of the computer on the World Wide Web which hosts the page. Once a domain is registered the information provided by that domain must have a host computer where the files are stored.

That computer is called a server.
Some places are huge collections of servers known as “server farms.” Servers which host huge collections of data must organize that data in directories or file folders. Anything following the domain name which is also followed by a slash is the name of a directory. Very large collections of data may require sub-directories, or folders within folders.

Each file in the directory must have a unique name. Some get very complicated. Spaces should not be in file names.

Using URLs

A URL can be typed into the address box on your browser. Type carefully, if one character is wrong you will not get to the page. After typing in the URL press the Enter key to go to the page.
Usually you will use a URL by following a link on another web page. After reading these instructions go to When you get there put your cursor over the CNN URL, but do not click. Your mouse pointer will change to a hand indicating that the words are a link to another page. Look in the status bar, the gray bar at the bottom of your browser window. You will see the URL of the place those words link to.

Navigating the Internet (IE)

Setting your Home Page

Assuming you are in Internet Explorer, go to the web page you want to make your home page. Lots of people make Google their home page. Click on the HOME (house) icon on the COMMAND BAR that sits just above the IE window on the right and click ADD or CHANGE HOME PAGE. Using the Standard Button toolbar and or the Command Bar.

AOL toolbar and Google toolbar

Download Google toolbar:

Customize Command Bar – right click on Command bar and click on CUSTOMIZE toolbar

Browsing with Internet Explorer

Regular browsing
Browse by keyword or web address
Tabbed browsing

Search for something that interests you.

Wednesday, March 2, 2011


Bring up Beyond the Basics on your computer.

Do a search on "What kind of a hat is Jughead's Hat?" Jot down the first 5 hits you get in the search.


Save to Desktop: you can download anything and save it to your desktop for later retrieval.
Tools – Options – Main – Save files/photos to Desktop (Browse) Firefox
Internet Explorer saves dowloads to My Documents/Pictures

Saving an Image
(1) Find an image somewhere on the Internet. We will need one so you can practice saving an image. Have you found one yet? Good, now let’s go to step two. (2) Right-click the image. A menu will pop up. (3) Click on SAVE IMAGE AS (4) Give a name to the image or keep name. (5) Save in DESKTOP or My Documents/My Pictures

TIP: In order to search a web page just hit Control-F. At the bottom of the page will appear a search (Find) toolbar. You can type in the word(s) you are looking for.

Here's how to e-mail documents, spreadsheets, photos or any other type of file. Most email programs work the same way.

1. Open your email program.

2. Fill in address, subject.

3. Click the attachment icon (the paper clip) or insert the file by selecting from the drop-down menu.

Browse your hard drive or removable disks to locate the file you want to attach. Click it to highlight the name, then click the Insert button.

An icon or message should now appear indicating that the file has been attached.

Finally, click the Send button and off it goes!

Today I'll concentrate on Microsoft Word, a word processing program for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. Included in the Microsoft application suite, it is a sophisticated program with rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities that has become the most widely used word processing application on the market. The first versions of Word came out under DOS and provided both graphics-based and text-based interfaces for working with a document.

1. First open a Word document . If you have the word icon on your desktop (see it above) double left click it and you'll be taken to Word. If it's in your PROGRAMS, click START,PROGRAMS, MICROSOFT WORD. You should be looking at a NEW document. 2. Above the open document you have various toolbars. A toolbar is a row of icons on a computer screen above the NEW window in Word that activate commands or functions when clicked. The most important ones are
Let's go over each button/icon of each toolbar and the MENU BAR.
1. Above the two toolbars is the MENU BAR. Each icon on each toolbar represents an action that you may want to perform while creating a document. Documents can include letters, papers, e-mails, essays, lists, directions, etc. 2. You can CUSTOMIZE (Add or Remove buttons) A TOOLBAR or RESET it.
Right-click in toolbar area - check or uncheck toolbar name.
Adding icons or buttons: Click drop-down arrow at the very end of the toolbar.
Step 1. Open your browser window and minimize it.   Step 2. Enter the following line at the top of the document:
Title: Wild Flowers Of The Asphalt 
Do not use all caps anywhere on the page. The eye has difficulty scanning text in an all caps format, even including headlines.
Step 3. Highlight the line of text and perform the following actions using toolbar buttons, menu items: Format the text to Bold Increase font size to 18 pt .
Center the text
Press Return/Enter two times Click Bold button to remove Bold Return text size to default
*Note: all of these actions can be performed using the Formatting toolbar.  
Step 4. Copy the following paragraph and paste it into your document two lines below the headline:
William Dean Howells Looking through Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey's charming book on the Flowers of Field, Hill, and Swamp, the other day, I was very forcibly reminded of the number of these pretty, wilding growths which I had been finding all the season long among the streets of asphalt and the sidewalks of artificial stone in this city; and I am quite sure that any one who has been kept in New York, as I have been this year, beyond the natural time of going into the country, can have as real a pleasure in this sylvan invasion as mine, if he will but give himself up to a sense of it.
Step 5. Enter a list of trees below in the form of a bulleted list: 1. Select the items one at a time 2. Copy and paste into the Word document. 3. Select the bulleted list button: Maple Ash Cedar Beech After all bulleted points have been entered hit the Return/Enter key twice. Cursor returns to the margin.   Step 6. Highlight the five bulleted points. Go to the FORMAT menu, select Bullets and Numbering and change the style of the bullet.
  Insert Symbols or Special Characters
Many Word users don't realize how easy it is to insert special characters. There are at least four ways to do it: through the Symbol dialog, using shortcut keys, automatically with AutoCorrect, or by direct keypad entry.
If you choose Symbol… on the INSERT menu, you will bring up the Symbol dialog, shown below. (If you have a slow system and/or one with many fonts installed, you may find that this dialog takes an appreciable time to appear the first time you use it in a Word session, but after that it should pop up instantly.)
In the font list in the Symbol dialog, "(normal text)" means the font you are currently using.
There are many ways to insert tables in your Word document. However, the quickest way to create a table from scratch is to use the INSERT TABLE/TABLE toolbar button. To insert a table using this method, simply click the Insert Table/Table toolbar button when your cursor is positioned at the place in your document where you would like the table to begin.
A grid will pop up allowing you to select how many rows and columns you would like your table to contain. Simply use your mouse to select the number of rows and columns by highlighting the boxes (text at the bottom of the grid will indicate what your selection is). When you have specified the correct number of rows and columns, simply click once, and your table will be inserted.
While this method will create a table with uniform columns and rows, you can still customize your table after it is inserted by right-clicking on the table handle (the double-headed arrow at the top left corner of the table) and using the options on the shortcut menu to make changes. You can also click VIEW/Toolbars and then click on Tables and Borders to customize the table.
Step 1. Let’s go to the Internet and find Spring pictures. We can go from within the Word document or minimize the Word document and work in a browser.   Step 2. In the Google search box type a keyword(s). Hit return or click the big G.   Step 3. Google will return a list of links of winter storms. Click on link IMAGES at the top of the page.   Step 4. Pick a picture (thumbnail) under 100 kb. Click on the thumbnail then right click on the original image. Click SAVE IMAGE AS   Step 5. The name of the image will appear in the SAVE IMAGE window. Make sure you are saving to the DESKTOP.   Step 6. In WORD go to the INSERT menu, select PICTURE then FROM FILE... Find the picture you downloaded and highlight it. Then Click INSERT. The picture should appear in your document.   Step 7. With the picture selected, go to the FORMAT menu and select FORMAT PICTURE. There are several things that you can do with this picture.   Step 8. Resize the image by clicking and dragging. Click once on the image and it will be surrounded by eight boxes; one at each corner, and one in the middle of each line. If you click on a box in the middle of a line and drag outward from the center of the image you will change only the width or height of the picture, causing distortion. If you click on a corner box, hold the shift key down, and drag outward from the picture you will change width and height proportionally. If the aspect ratio is locked, Word automatically does this without your having to hold down the shift key.   Step 9. Move the image by clicking and dragging. Click once on the image and it will be surrounded by eight boxes; one at each corner, and one in the middle of each line. Move your cursor over the image and it becomes a pointer with a four headed arrow attached to it. Click anywhere in the picture and drag it to the desired location.
To add a Header and/or a Footer to a Word document, choose VIEW/Header and Footer. A space on the document pops up and the toolbar appears. Let's take a look at the Header and Footer toolbar:
Type in the necessary information in the box on the document and align the text. If you need to insert information into the footer area, you can click in the footer area and start typing. However, whenever you are within the header/footer area of a document, the Header/Footer toolbar appears.