Wednesday, April 27, 2011


Disk Cleanup and

Defragging your Hard Disk    

Why should we defragment machines?

When you defrag your machine, you are making your machine work better. Defragging puts all of the pieces needed to run your program in a close proximity to each other on the hard drive. When you delete programs in your hard drive, you leave empty spaces where pieces of the program were inserted during installation. When you load a new program, the computer goes to the first available slot to place all the parts, so your program could be loading pieces at the beginning, middle and end. This forces your hard drive to hunt all over in accessing all the pieces and putting them together to run your application. By defragging the machine, all the program pieces will be moved and put together so your hard drive can run optimally and access programs as fast as it is capable of doing. In WinXP, the machine is smart enough to realize which program you use most often and make them more accessible in the hard drive itself so that it can be accessed even more quickly.
Defragging your machine should be part of your regular maintenance. Twice a month should keep your machine running at optimal level. If you load and delete programs often, then defrag more often.
Before defragging your machine, close all open Windows programs.
Step 1:
Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools/Disk Defragmenter
Follow this shorthand until you open ScanDisk. If you have not done a ScanDisk in awhile, I would suggest clicking on Thorough. If you have a weekly schedule for maintenance, then just the Standard will be sufficient. Select the hard drive you wish to scan and click on start. After this process is finished, go to the next step.
Step 2:
Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools/Disk Defragmenter
Follow the shorthand steps until you open Disk Defragmenter.
Select the drive to defrag and click ok and it will defrag your hard drive.
 Depending on how large your hard drive is, this process will take anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour.
It is advisable to do this at the end of the day when you don’t need to use your machine.


The Keyboard
Escape - Esc is used to back out of situations. When you find yourself in a place where you don’t want to be, try the Esc key. In PowerPoint this key will stop a running slide show. The keyboard combination Ctrl + Esc will open the Start menu.

Windows key – brings up the START menu
Print Screen - Don’t look at your printer after pressing this key. This sends a copy of whatever is on the screen to the clipboard. One common use of this action is to paste the clipboard into Paint to copy a portion of an image for use in another application. If you wish to copy only the active window, hold down the Alt key, then tap on the Print Screen key. It will copy only that window that is active, not the whole desktop.
Scroll Lock

Pause/Break - On modern keyboards, the break key is usually labeled Pause/Break. On many games this (and/or the P key) is the key to pause the game. In most Windows environments, the key combination Windows key+Pause brings up the system properties.

Keyboard shortcuts to use on a Windows/PC computer
You can avoid reaching for the mouse if you are familiar with keyboard shortcuts. If you forget one of these, use the mouse and go to the menu bar. In each pull down menu you will see keyboard shortcuts given on the right side of the window.
Commonly used keyboard combinations
To use one of these combinations Hold the Ctrl or Alt key down and strike the letter key
Open a new word document quickly.
Cut- Removes the selection from the active document and places it on the clipboard.
Opens a previously saved document.
Copies the selection to the clipboard
Closes the active window, but does not Exit Word.
Paste - Inserts the contents of the clipboard at the insertion point (cursor) or whatever is selected.
Saves the active document with its current file name, location and format.
Selects all text and graphics in the active window.
Prints the active file, also gives the opportunity to change print options
Find - Searches for specified text in the active document

Exit - Closes Microsoft Word.
Bold - Formats selected text; make text bold, or remove bold formatting
Undo the last action. This selection can be repeated several times.
Italic - Formats selected text; make text italic or remove italic
Redo - After an action has been undone, it can be reinstated in the document.
Underline - Formats selected text; make text underlined or remove underline

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Lesson Five

Let's Review Windows 7

Windows 7 is the latest public release version of
Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and reached general retail availability on October 22, 2009, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time.

Unlike its predecessor, which introduced a large number of new features,
Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being fully compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista is already compatible.

Presentations given by Microsoft in 2008 focused on multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows Shell with a
new taskbar, referred to as the Superbar, a home networking system called HomeGroup, and performance improvements. Some applications that have been included with prior releases of Microsoft Windows, including Windows Calendar, Windows Mail, Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Photo Gallery, are not included in Windows 7; most are instead offered separately as part of the free Windows Live Essentials suite.

Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7. Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer 8 and Windows Media Player 12.

In July 2009, in only eight hours, pre-orders of Windows 7 at surpassed the demand Windows Vista had in its first 17 weeks. It became the highest-grossing pre-order in Amazon's history, surpassing sales of the previous record holder, the seventh Harry Potter book. After 36 hours, 64-bit versions of Windows 7 Professional and Ultimate editions sold out in Japan. Two weeks after its release, it was announced that its market share had surpassed that of Snow Leopard, released two months previously as the most recent update to Apple's Mac OS X operating system. According to Net Applications, Windows 7 reached a 4% market share in less than three weeks. In comparison, it took Windows Vista seven months to reach the same mark. As of January 29, 2010, Microsoft announced that they had sold more than 60 million Windows 7 licenses. Reviews of Windows 7 were mostly positive, praising its usability when compared to its predecessor, Windows Vista. CNET gave Windows 7 Home Premium a rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars, stating that it "is more than what Vista should have been, [and] it's where Microsoft needed to go". PC Magazine rated it a 4 out of 5 saying that Windows 7 is a "big improvement" over Windows Vista, with fewer compatibility problems, a retooled taskbar, simpler home networking and faster start-up.

Some Vista Ultimate users have expressed concerns over Windows 7 pricing and upgrade options. Windows Vista Ultimate users wanting to upgrade from Windows Vista to Windows 7 must either pay $219.99 to upgrade to Windows 7 Ultimate or perform a clean install, which requires them to reinstall all of their programs.

Microsoft is offering a family pack of Windows 7 Home Premium (in select markets) that allows installation on up to three PCs. The "Family Pack" costs US$259.99 in the United States; it was available at a cost of US$149.99 for some weeks when it was first introduced.